Difference between revisions of "De spinea corona"
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*• STORM, G. 1880: MHN, 159-62.
*• STORM, G. 1880: MHN, 159-62.
Revision as of 10:42, 5 July 2012
by Lars Boje Mortensen.
The spinea corona. This brief legend tells the story of how the Norwegian king Magnus VI the Law-mender (1263-1280) through his legate, archbishop Jon Raude (1268-1282), received a piece from the Crown of Thorns in 1274 as a gift from the French king Philip III (1270-1285) and installed it for worship at the Church of Apostles in Bergen.
We have no manuscript evidence for a title of the work (see Medieval reception and transmission); STORM printed it under the title De spinea corona.
Regnante in monarchia Norvegiae...
... quinto Idus Novembris agitur.
Size As we know it, the text comprises two modern printed pages, but a longer version may have existed (see Composition and style).
- Breviarium Nidrosiense (1519), ff. zz vi-vii.
- TORFÆUS, T. 1711: HRN 4, 359-60.
- • STORM, G. 1880: MHN, 159-62.
The Legend opens with the words Regnante in monarchia Norvegiae illustri Magno quarto.... This must be an allusive borrowing from the by far most widespread legend in Norway, that of St. Olaf from the twelfth century which begins: Regnante illustrissimo rege Olavo apud Norvegiam... The rhetorical ambitions of the legend of the Crown of Thorns also match its model – though not its length in the version we know.
It is possible that the description of the reliquary (and perhaps of the celebration in Paris in Chapelle Royale on August 11) relies on a contemporary French text, but this remains to be investigated.
The only explicit reference to another text is in the Beirut miracle sections where the dating to 750 is warranted “as we read in the chronicles” (ut ex chronicis habetur). As identified by STORM, this is a piece from Legenda Aurea (ch. 131 De exaltatione sancte crucis, 70-88, ed. G.P. Maggioni, vol. 2, 934-935, Firenze 1998). This is a rather early use in Norway of the Legenda Aurea of which a first version had been completed in Northern Italy by Jacobo da Voragine in the early 1260s. The paraphrased passage may have come through an intermediary French source, but it is not impossible that Dominicans in Norway already possessed copies of the Legenda Aurea in the 1270s. Apart from written sources, an oral report from Archbishop Jon or someone in his entourage and the author’s own observations in Bergen probably formed the basis of the account. The anonymous author may also have taken part himself in the proceedings in Lyon and Paris.
Purpose and audience
The legend should serve as official document and authentication of the relic. It is clear from the text that the authenticity of the transmission of the relic was warranted through the presence of the French king, high standing ecclesiastics and Archbishop Jon himself. (The relic in its entirety had been pawned by Baldwin II, Latin emperor of Constantinople to the Venetians and bought (?) by King Louis in 1238, who had initiated the feast for 11 August, in 1239. In the 1240s he had erected the Chapelle royale to house this and other relics of the Passion. This background is not referred to in the Norwegian legend, except for a comment on the felix copia of relics of the Passion in Paris). The legend was written at a moment of great momentum in the imitation of royal French ways, as Magnus also proceeded to build a new Church of the Apostles in Bergen (destroyed in 1530). With royal and archiepiscopal power behind, the legend and its surrounding songs and tales is likely to have had some impact in Bergen as well as in other Norwegian ecclesiastical centres.
Medieval reception and transmission
The event of the reception of the relic had a certain resonance in the Nordic countries. It is mentioned several times in the Icelandic annals (cf. STORM 1880, XXXXV-XXXXVI) and offices for the relic have survived (see e.g. Brynjolf Algotsson, bishop of Skara, who received a piece of the piece from the Norwegian king in 1304). The text of the legend is only known from the printed Breviarium Nidrosiense (1519) in which much unique textual material is gathered, often in an abbreviated form. As mentioned above, a fuller legend may have existed in the thirteenth century, but we have no direct evidence for it now.
- SCHÜCK, H. 1918: “De spinea corona,” Samlaren 39, 30 f.
- STORM, G. 1880: MHN, XXXXV-XXXXVII.