Anders Leegaard Knudsen
Annalistic historiography in medieval Denmark began at the arch-see of Lund in the late 1130s based on a set of Anglo-Norman annals closely related to the annals of Battle and the annals of Bury St. Edmunds. The compilers of both the >Annales Colbazenses and the >Annales Lundenses used this set of annals which must have been present at the arch-see until at least the second half of the thirteenth century. Annalistic writing thus came to Denmark as a fully-fledged historiographical genre. In her magisterial treatment of the early Danish annalistic writing A.K.G. KRISTENSEN (1969) confirmed the hypothesis of E. ARUP (1921–1923) that the Danish annals are compilations of written information, rather than yearly recordings of events. The chronological structure of the annals is defined by their historiographical genre and does not reflect the process of production. KRISTENSEN also adduced several no longer extant intermediaries in order to explain the relationships of the still extant sets of annals. However well-argued her reasoning, the exact nature of these intermediaries – whether clean copies, working copies or mere collections of material – remains conjectural and no attempt is made to deal with them in this article.
From Lund the annalistic compilations spread to the rest of Denmark as well as Sweden, Iceland and possibly Northern Germany. Lund remained the centre of annalistic writing till the end of the thirteenth century when activities moved elsewhere even if we cannot point to any particular new centre or centres.
Three sets of annals are treated in separate entries in this Handbook: >Annales Colbazenses, >Annales Lundenses, and >Annales Ryenses. The rest are treated here, ordered partly chronologically, partly topographically. After the presentation of each set relevant literature is adduced chronologically, in abbreviated form; the full alphabetical bibliography appears at the end of the article. With regard to manuscripts, only primary textual witnesses are listed.
Annalistic material pertaining to Denmark is also found in Chronica Jutensis (>Compendium Saxonis & Chronica Jutensis), >Chronica Sialandie and Continuatio Chronice Sialandie, as well as the Collectanea Petri Olai (>Petrus Olai). The Annales 826–1415 or Chronologia anonymi is in this Website treated as a work by >Paulus Helie. The Annales 916–1263 also known as Dano-Swedish Annals 916–1263 or Dominican Annals until 1254 is treated in the entry on the >Annales Suecici in this Handbook.
The medieval Danish annals have been studied extensively, primarily with regard to determining the reliability of their factual information. They have only rarely been subjected to studies beyond their dependence on one another, or their political and ideological slant. For a recent study of nationalism as expressed in the Danish annals, see KNUDSEN 2000.
Also called Annales Valdemariani, and Chronicon Danicum ab anno 1074 usque ad annum 1219.
Anno dominice incarnationis 1074 mortuus est Swen, filius Estrid ... Explicit ...1219. Edicta est expedicio super paganos ad Estoniam. Manuscript Copenhagen, National Archives, Indre forhold, C 8, Kong Valdemars Jordebog, fols. 58v–64r (ca. 1300). Facsimiles KROMAN 1962, 215–22. Editions SRD 3, 259–65; MGH SS 29, 176–81; AD, 72–104; KROMAN 1980, 75–79. The Annales Valdemarii are transmitted in a miscellaneous manuscript from ca. 1300, written in the Cistercian abbey of Sorø in Zealand, and containing copies i.a. various cameralistic lists, originating from the royal chancellery. The annals are written by a single hand which has also written several other pieces in the miscellany. The annals are connected with the annalistic tradition from Lund, but are believed to have been compiled by a clerk of the royal chancellery. They are mostly concerned with secular matters and lack any local affiliation. The many international references probably come from a source with connections to the annalistic tradition from Cologne. The first entry concerns the death of King Sven Estridsen, now believed to have occurred in 1076 but in the Danish medieval historiography always placed in 1074. The chronological sequence only really begins with the year 1130 and ends with the entry for 1219. Literature AD 8–9; JØRGENSEN 1931, 8; ARUP 1921–1923, 378 f.; KROMAN 1936–1937; AXELSON 1956, 9; KROMAN 1962, XVI–XVII and XXVII–XXIX; KRISTENSEN 1969, 62 ff..
Also called Annales 67–1287 and Annales Fratrum Minorum Wisbyenses ab anno 67 ad annum 1525. Incipit Anno Domino 67. Prima persequcio Christianorum sub Nerone. Explicit 1287. Ericus rex interficitur in nocte sancte Cecilie. Manuscript Stockholm, Royal Library, B 99, f. 50v–51r (s. XV ineunte). Facsimiles KROMAN 1962, 229–32. Editions LUDEWIG 1731, 212–17; SRD 1, 251–56; AD, 136–37; KROMAN 1980, 145–48. The manuscript contains i.a. the calendar and obituary of the Franciscan convent in Visby on Gotland. The annals show no local affiliation to either Gotland or the convent. They are related to the Annales Essenbecenses and a common source for both must be assumed. An entry under 1231 about the arrival of the Dominicans in Roskilde on Zealand might indicate the place of origin of the original. The annalist was interested in ecclesiastical history, beginning his work with the first persecution of Christians under Nero and noting various events from church history throughout, even if he focused more and more on Danish history. Literature ERSLEV 1882, 342–46; AD, 22; SJÖSTEDT 1952, 10 ff.; KROMAN 1962, XX, XXXI.
Also called Annales Sorani ad 1268. Incipit Anno Domini 966 Dani ad <fidem> sunt conuersi per Poponem, qui chirotecam ferream ignitam illesus portauit inspectante rege Haraldo, qui conuersus est, et Poppo promotus in episcopum ... Explicit 1268. Eciam ædificauit castrum Ripis ..... Matthæus dapifer cum Danis corruerunt Estoniæ. Manuscript Copenhagen, Royal Library, Add. 120 4°, p. 113–24 & 110–12 and a leaflet (Vedel, p. XVI). Editions WAITZ 1887, 33; MGH SS 29, 237; AD, 132–35; KROMAN 1980, 98–105. There is no consensus on this mysterious set of annals that has been ascribed to both the duchy of Slesvig and the Cistercian abbey of Sorø. Vedel copied the annals from a manuscript known as “The old roll from Soer” (Soer = Sorø) and this is the strongest argument in favour of KROMAN’s hypothesis that the original was written in this monastery. It hardly clinches the matter, however, since nothing is known about the date and origin of “the old roll”. ERSLEV 1892 raised the question of a reworking in the sixteenth century. Further research is needed. The annals show traces of much of the other known historiography: annals, king lists, Chronicon Roskildense, Saxo and Vetus Chronica Sialandie. There is a lacuna 1216–1249. Literature ERSLEV 1892, 9; AD, 21–22; JØRGENSEN 1931, 11; KROMAN 1936–1937, 63; AXELSON 1956, 19; KROMAN 1962, XIX–XX.
Two sets of annals originate from Næstved:
1) Annales Nestvedienses vetustiores 1130–1228
Also called Calendarium Monasterii beati Petri Nestvediensis. Incipit: Anno dominice incarnacionis millesimo centesimo. 1130. Kanutus occissus est, qui Rincstadis requiescit ... Explicit: 1228. Bellum fuit inter Danos et Hulcenses apud Egidor. MS: Copenhagen, Royal Library, E don. Var. 52 2° (ca. 1265, containing i.a. the Calendarium of the Benedictine monastery in Næstved on Zealand), 2r. Facsimiles: KROMAN 1962, 223–26. Editions: SRD 4, 285–89; MGH SS 29, 181–82, AD, 72–106; KROMAN 1980, 80–81. This set of annals is based on a lost set of annals from Lund which was also the basis for the Annales Valdemarii and the Annales 916–1263 (>Annales Suecici). It was obviously meant to be continued as the scribe prepared the manuscript for entries for the years 1229–1236. These are empty, however, and several of the years prior to 1228 have no entries either. The manuscript thus shows us the very earliest phase of annalistic writing: the setting up of a set of annals to be expanded and continued. Unfortunately the enterprise was never continued. Most of the entries were used by the Annales Nestvedienses minores. Dating of events is frequently wrong and no local affiliation is visible. Literature AD, 10; JØRGENSEN 1931, 10; HELMS 1940, 63 f.; AXELSON 1956, 10; KROMAN 1962, XVII & XXIX–XXX; KRISTENSEN 1969, 45 ff.
2) Annales Nestvedienses minores 821–1300 (1505)
Also called Anonymi Nestvediensis Chronologia Danica ab anno 821 ad annum 1300. Incipit 821. Haraldus factus est rex Danorum ... Explicit Anno Domini millesimo quingentesimo quinto uisus est sol totus sanguineus ipso die Francisci, statimque 3tia die reformatum est monasterium in Nestveth minorum. Manuscripts 1) SRD 1 (1772), 368 (J. LANGEBEK after a now lost copy by Arni Magnusson made from a no longer extant copy by Thomas Bartholin from a medieval parchment manuscript, E 39 in the University Library of Copenhagen, destroyed in the fire of 1728); 2) Uppsala UL DG XXV–XXIX, 2r (Stephanius, from E 39); 3) Copenhagen, Royal Library, Rostgaard 42 4°, 1–4 & 13–17 (excerpts by Svaning from E 39); 4) Copenhagen AM 107 8° (excerpts in Petri Olai Collectanea). Editions WESTPHALEN, Monumenta inedita 1, (1731), 1404; SRD 1 368–72; SRS 3 (1876), 107 (ANNERSTEDT excerpts from MS 2); MGH SS 29, 218–21; AD, 71–128; KROMAN 1980, 82–88. The E 39 was a historical miscellany, containing i.a. Adam of Bremen, the Chronicon Roskildense and the Annales Nestvedienses minores. The first part of the annals, until 1127, are dependent on the Chronicon Roskildense. From 1130 the Annales Nestvedienses vetustiores and the Annales Lundenses were used as sources. For the period 1213–1225 the annals include some obituary notes also found in the Annales Sorani recentiores 1202–1347. The annals become more independent from the middle of the thirteenth century and include local information on the monastery, as well as the town of Næstved belonging to it. Literature AD, 19–20; JØRGENSEN 1931, 10; HELMS 1940, 321 f.; AXELSON 1956, 10; KROMAN 1962, XVII–XVIII; KRISTENSEN 1969, 127–32; CHRISTENSEN 1981, 169.
Two sets of annals from the Cistercian abbey of Sorø in Zealand exist:
1) Annales Sorani Vetustiores 1130–1300
Also called Anonymi Chronicon Danicum ab anno 1130 usque ad annum 1300. Incipit 1130. Interfectus est sanctus Kanutus Ringstadis a Magno, filio Nicolai ... Explicit 1300. Obiit Iohannes episcopus Roskildensis. Manuscripts 1) Uppsala UL, DG XXV–XXIX, fol. 141v (Stephanius, on the basis of the now lost manuscript, A 9, a miscellany made for the Royal Historiographer Niels Krag, containing i.a. a copy of the Annales Sorani Vetustiores made from the original manuscript, from the University Library in Copenhagen); 2) Copenhagen AM 907 4°, a copy made for Arni Magnusson from a no longer extant copy of the original made for the younger Thomas Bartholin, and possibly the basis for the edition in SRD (CHRISTENSEN 1981); 3) Copenhagen AM 107 8° (excerpts in Petri Olai Collectanea, presumably made from the original manuscript); and possibly: 4) SRD 4 (1776), in case it is not based on MS 2), but some other, no longer extant manuscript which has been the communis opinio so far. Editions LUDEWIG 1731, 150 (based on a no longer extant copy of MS 1); SRD 4, 225–30 (J. LANGEBEK & P. F. SUHM, using MS 2 and LUDEWIG’s 1731 edition, but perhaps also a now lost copy of the original manuscript made for Arni Magnusson); MGH SS 29, 176–81; AD, 73; KROMAN 1980, 89–94; CHRISTENSEN 1981, 172–75 (MS 2). This set of annals was part of a miscellaneous folio manuscript from Lund, presumably written in the twelfth century. It was present at the arch-see around 1200 but eventually wound up in Sorø. It has been suggested that the annals were written, or at least begun, while the manuscript was still in Lund. They might then have been continued and expanded after the manuscript was taken to Sorø at an unknown date (MALMROS 1982). This hypothesis is attractive, as it would explain why the annalist had access to so many other sets of annals which are not otherwise known to have circulated outside Lund. The loss of the original manuscript in the great fire, which destroyed the University Library and much of Copenhagen in 1728, makes it impossible to verify the hypothesis, however. The Annales Sorani vetustiores were an important intermediary between the annalistic writing at the arch-see and later sets of annals, e.g. the >Annales Ryenses. Literature: AD, 17–18; KROMAN 1936–1937, 59 ff.; AXELSON 1956, 15; KROMAN 1962, XVIII; KRISTENSEN 1969, 98 ff.; CHRISTENSEN 1981, 167–69; MALMROS 1982, 350–51.
2) Annales Sorani recentiores 1202–1347
Also called Annales Danici Sorani 1202–1347 and The Annals in the Justinus-manuscript. Incipit 1202. Obiit Kanutus, rex Danorum Sclauorumque ac totius Holsacie ... Explicit 1347. Rex Waldemarus transiit Ierosolimis in peregrinatione, et fuit magna pluuia per totum annum. Manuscript Copenhagen, Royal Library, GKS 450 2°, (s. XII, Justinus’ Epitome), fol. 130r. Facsimiles CCD 5, 227. Editions SRD 5, 456–58; MGH SS 29, 182–83; AD, 142–43; KROMAN 1980, 95–97. This set of annals is entered on a page in the Justinus-manuscript bequethed to the Cistercian monastery of Sorø in archbishop Absalon’s will, but apparently on loan to >Saxo Grammaticus at the time the will was drawn up. The annals are heavily dependent on the Lundensian historiography. The entries are written by three hands: the first hand entered the entries for 1202–1231 sometime after the death of Valdemar II the Victorious in 1241, but probably not later than ca. 1265. The entries for 1231–1288 are written by a second hand in one working, probably at the turn of the century. The same hand (or a very similar third hand) then wrote the entries for 1291–1300. Finally a third (or fourth) hand wrote the entries for 1308–1347. However, neither AD nor KROMAN 1980 discounts the possibility that the same scribe wrote all the entries, only at different times. Literature AD, 24; ARUP 1921–1923, 374–76; AXELSON 1956, 15; CCD 5, XIX, XXX.
Also called Chronologia rerum memorabilium ab anno 1020. usque ad annum 1323. Incipit Anno ab incarnacione Domini 1020. Ordo Cluniacensis exordium sumpsit ... Explicit 1323. Hyems erat tam seua, ut homines maria equitauerunt. Manuscripts MS 1: Uppsala, University Library, DG 50 4° (s. XVI ineunte?), 20; MS 2: Uppsala, University Library, H 112 (Arild Huitfeldt, s. XVI), fol. 54r; MS 3: Copenhagen, Royal Library, NKS 402 2°, (Bircherod, s. XVIII), 71; MS 4: Copenhagen, Royal Library, NKS 561 2° (Lucoppidan, s. XVIII), 81. Facsimiles CCD 5, 357–65. Editions WESTPHALEN, Monumenta inedita 3 (1743), 540; SRD 2 (1773), 520–29 (J. LANGEBEK); MGH SS 29 (1892), 221–28 (G. WAITZ); AD, 144–48; KROMAN 1980, 274–83. The MSS 2, 3 and 4 all descend from the same, no longer extant, manuscript made by Hans Svaning (ca. 1500–1584). MS 1 might descend from a medieval manuscript. MARSTRAND 1937 argued unsuccessfully that this set of annals was written on behalf of archbishop Esger Juul (1310–1325). However, the annals are ascribed (J. LANGEBEK was the first to do so, in 1773) to the Benedictine monastery of Essenbæk south of Randers fjord in Jutland on the basis of just two entries (1151 and 1179) concerning the monastery, and two more concerning the nearby town of Randers. The Annales Essenbecenses is heavily dependent on the Lundensian annalistic writing but relations to the extant sets of annals, or to the lost intermediaries adduced by KRISTENSEN 1969, remains to be worked out. The annalist noted political and meteorological events in Denmark, but also the founding of the great monastic orders and the conquests of Jerusalem, the founding of monasteries in Denmark and neighbouring countries, as well as some of the great church councils and the deaths of prominent ecclesiastics. Literature AD, 25–26; ARUP 1921–1923, 377; JØRGENSEN 1931, 14 f.; SKOV 1937a + b; MARSTRAND 1937; idem 1938; AXELSON 1956, 19 f.; CCD 5, XXII & XXXII; ILSØE 1963–1966, passim.
Also called Incerti Auctoris Chronicon Danorum ab anno 936. ad annum 1317. Incipit Huius tempore Rollo, dux Danorum, regem Francie bellis compulit dare sibi Normanniam ... Explicit 1324. In die beati Kanuti regis et martiris perlamentum fuit in Nykiøbing per regem Christopherum et Ericum, eius filium, ac per Esgerum, archiepiscopum Lundensem, et eius suffraganeos omnes. Manuscripts MS 1: Copenhagen, Royal Library, GKS 2455 4°, fol. 7–28 (Vedel, s. XVI2); MS 2: Copenhagen, Royal Library, Additamenta 120 4°, 129 (excerpts by Vedel); MS 3: Kalmar (Stephanius), now Stockholm, Royal Library, K 92, fol. 1r. Editions AD, 149–56; KROMAN 1980, 254–67; excerpt 936–1317: SRD 2, 169–76. The Annales Ripenses are a continuation of the >Annales Ryenses. The first six folios of MS 1 are now missing but in all likelyhood the beginning of this set of annals was as dependent on the Annales Ryenses as the rest. The annals are normally ascribed to the see of Ribe in Jutland, on the basis of their information on bishops Tyge (1273–1288) and Christiern (1288–1313), and the use of them in the Chronicon ecclesiae Ripensis. The latter part of the Annales Ripenses is related to the >Chronica Sialandie and it must be assumed that both of them have used a common, no longer extant, source. Literature AD, 26–27; JØRGENSEN 1931, 14; AXELSON 1956; CCD 5, XXI; SZOMLAISKI 1973; HØRBY 1975, 139–40.
Also called Annales Danici ab anno 1316. ad annum 1389. Incipit Anno Christi 1316. Duces Waldemarus et Ericus a fratre suo Birgero rege Suecie captiuantur ... Explicit Deo laus in secula, qui dedit uictoriam inopitatam in manu femine, uidelicet reges in compedibus et nobiles eorum in manicis ferreis. Manuscript Copenhagen, The Danish National Archives, Håndskriftsamlingen, IV. Danmark – Norges almindelige historie, D.3., (four leaves of paper, s. XV. ineunte). Facsimiles CCD 5, 213–14. Editions SRD 6, 531–35; AD, 189–91; KROMAN 1980, 71–74. This set of annals is preserved in a nearly contemporary manuscript of four leaves of paper. The entries for 1316–1326 are compiled from unknown sources, while those for 1326–1366 are taken from the Chronica Archiepiscoporum Lundensium. There are only a few entries for the following period, until 1382, but from 1382 to 1389 the entries are relatively extensive and seem to be contemporary with events, if not necessarily written year for year. Literature AD, 32; CCD 5, XVI & XXVIII; ARUP 1921–1923, 366 f.
Excerpts of medieval annals by early modern historians and antiquarians
A number of excerpts from various annals, formerly believed to have been made in the Middle Ages, are now recognized as being the work of sixteenth and seventeenth century historians. The exact relationships of these excerpts to the extant medieval annals is exceedingly difficult to work out, due to the great fire in Copenhagen in 1728 in which the University Library perished and with it the collections of the historiographers as well as the medieval manuscripts. It is often quite impossible to know if a set of excerpts, containing textual variants to the transmitted text of a medieval set of annals, is a primary or secondary textual witness. The value of these excerpts for the medievalist is relatively small, even if they potentially are of great value for the study of Early Modern historiography and antiquarianism. Key figures among these historiographers were Hans Jensen Svaning (Johannes Johannis Svaningius, ca. 1500–1584), Anders Sørensen Vedel (Andreas Severinus Velleius, 1542–1616), Cornelius Hamsfort the younger (1546–1627) and Steffen Hansen Steffensen (Stephanus Iohannis Stephanius, 1599–1650). As an aid to the users of this Website it was decided to include a list of the post-medieval annalistic excerpts, detailing, as far as possible, their dates, the works excerpted and the editions. It was deemed unnecessary to list the manuscripts, but a bibliography for each is supplied. Annales 980–1286 Sixteenth-century excerpts of >Annales Ryenses, >Annales Lundenses and Annales Sorani vetustiores, possibly made by Cornelius Hamsfort. Editions: SRD 2, 433–38; MGH SS 29, 234–37; AD, 192; KROMAN 1980, 268–73. Literature: ERSLEV 1892, 9; AD, 32–33; ARUP 1921–1923, 371; CCD 5, XXI–XXII. Annales 1095–1194 Sixteenth-century excerpts of the >Annales Ryenses and >Saxo Grammaticus; possibly made by Cornelius Hamsfort. Editions: SRD 3, 627–31; AD, 195–96; KROMAN 1980, 307–9. Literature: ERSLEV 1892, 8; AD, 32–33; ARUP 1921–1923, 371; CCD 5, XXIII. Annales 1259–1286 Sixteenth-century excerpts of the excerpts of Chronica Jutensis (>Compendium Saxonis and Chronica Jutensis) in the Collectanea Petri Olai (Copenhagen, AM 107 8°). Editions: LUDEWIG 1731, Reliquiæ Manuscriptorum IX; SRD 5, 614–15; AD, 196; KROMAN 1980, 310–11. Literature: ERSLEV 1892, 9; AD, 33–34; ARUP 1921–1923, 371; ILSØE 1963–1966, 423–24; CCD 5, XXIII. Annales 1101–1313, 933–1263 Sixteenth-century excerpts of the Annales Ripenses. Editions: SRD 4, 22–26; MGH SS 29, 228–30; AD, 200; KROMAN 1980, 312–15. Literature: AD, 35–36; ARUP 1921–1923, 371; CCD 5, XXIII; CHRISTENSEN 1981, 170. Annales 841–1006, 1246–1265 Sixteenth-century excerpts of the Annales Lundenses (by Vedel?). Editions: SRD 2, 17–18; SRD 5, 570–71; AD, 197 f.; KROMAN 1980, 316–18. Literature: AD, 34; ARUP 1921–1923, 371; CCD 5, XXIII–XXIV. Annales ad 1290 Sixteenth-century notes, primarily concerning the archbishops of Lund and the bishops of Roskilde, possibly compiled by Vedel. Editions: SRD 5, 571; AD, 198; KROMAN 1980, 319. Literature: AD, 34; ARUP 1921–1923, 371; CCD 5, XXIV. Annales 1098–1325 Sixteenth-century compilation based mainly on Chronica Sialandie and the Annales Lundenses. Possibly a Vedel-product. Editions: SRD 4, 281–85; MGH SS 29, 234–37; AD, 199; KROMAN 1980, 320–22. Literature: AD, 35; ARUP 1921–1923, 371; CCD 5, XXIV. Annales 1275–1347 Sixteenth-century excerpts of Chronica Sialandie, possibly by Vedel. Editions: SRD 6, 253–54; AD, 202; KROMAN 1980, 323–24. Literature: AD, 36; ARUP 1921–1923, 371; CCD 5, XXIV. Bibliography AD = Annales Danici medii aevi, ed. E. Jørgensen, Copenhagen 1920. ARUP, E. 1921–1923: [review of] “Annales Danivi Medii Ævi. Editionem nouam curauit Ellen Jørgensen. Kbhvn. 1920,” HistTD ser. 9, vol. 2, 362–80. AXELSON, S. 1956: Sverige i dansk annalistik 900–1400 (Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademiens Handlingar, Hist. Ser. 3), Stockholm. BOLIN, S. 1931: Om Nordens äldsta historieforskning: Studier över dess metodik och källvärde (Lunds Universitets årsskrift, N. F., Avd. 1, 27:3), Lund. CCD 5 = KROMAN 1962 CHRISTENSEN, K. 1981: “Om den ny udgave af Danmarks middelalderlige annaler,” Fortid og Nutid 29, 163–75. ERSLEV, K. 1882: “Studier til Dronning Margrethes Historie,” HistTD ser. 5, vol. 3, 333–425. ERSLEV, K. 1892: Kilderne til Danmarks Historie i Middelalderen (omtrent 1000–1450). Bibliografisk Oversigt, Copenhagen. HELMS, H.J. 1940: Næstved St. Peders Kloster (Skovkloster), Næstved. HØRBY, K. 1975: [review of] “Leif Szomlaiski: Yngre Sjællandske Krønike. Baggrund, tilblivelse og værdi. Odense University Studies in History and Social Sciences, Vol. 10. Odense University Press 1973.” HistTD ser. 13, vol. 2, 133–40. ILSØE, H. 1963–66: “Håndskriftet H 112 og de danske historikere. En studie i overlevering” HistTD ser. 12, vol. 1, 399–437. JØRGENSEN, E. 1931: Historieforskning og Historieskrivning i Danmark indtil Aar 1800, Copenhagen. KNUDSEN, A.L. 2000: “Interessen for den danske fortid omkring 1300. En middelalderlig dansk nationalisme,” HistTD ser. 17, vol. 3, 1–34. KRISTENSEN, A.K.G. 1969: Danmarks ældste annalistik. Studier over lundensisk annalskrivning i 12. og 13. århundrede (Skrifter udgivet af det Historiske Institut ved Københavns Universitet 3), Copenhagen. KROMAN, E. 1936–1937: “Ueber die Herkunft der Handschrift des Liber Census Daniae,” APhS 11, 1–81. KROMAN, E. (ed.) 1962: Scriptores rerum Danicarum, altera pars: Annales (CCD 5), Copenhagen. KROMAN, E. (ed.) 1980: Danmarks middelalderlige annaler, udgivet ved Erik Kroman på Grundlag af M. Cl. Gertz’, Marcus Lorenzens og Ellen Jørgensens udgaver, Copenhagen. LANGEBEK, J. 1772: SRD 1, Copenhagen. LANGEBEK, J. 1773: SRD 2, Copenhagen. LANGEBEK, J. 1774: SRD 3, Copenhagen. LANGEBEK, J. & SUHM, P.F. 1776: SRD 4, Copenhagen. LUDEWIG, J. 1731: Scriptores rerum Danicarum XII ab anno 700 ad annum 1500 [...] (Reliquiae manuscriptorum omnis aevi diplomatum ac monumentorum, ineditorum adhuc 9), Francofurti et Lipsiae. MALMROS, R. 1982: [review of] “Danmarks middelalderlige annaler udgivet ved Erik Kroman på grundlag af M. Cl. Gertz’, Marcus Lorenzens og Ellen Jørgensens udgaver af Selskabet for udgivelse af kilder til dansk historie. København, 1980,” HistTD ser. 14, vol. 3, 348–51. MARSTRAND, V. 1937: “Ærkebisp Esger Juuls Aarbog fra 1321–23,” Jyske Samlinger 5, 4, 250. MARSTRAND, V. 1938: “Ærkebisp Esger Juuls Aarbog fra 1321–23,” Jyske Samlinger 5, 4, 1. MGH SS 29 = WAITZ 1892 SJÖSTEDT, L. 1952: “Rydårboken och årboken 67–1287. Om förhållandet mellan två danska annaler,” Festskrift till Gottfrid Carlsson 18.12.1952, Lund SKOV, S. 1937a: “Essenbækaarbogen,” Jyske Samlinger 5, 3, 99. SKOV, S. 1937b: “Essenbækaarbogen,” Jyske Samlinger 5, 3, 305. SRD 1 = LANGEBEK 1772 SRD 2 = LANGEBEK 1773 SRD 3 = LANGEBEK 1774 SRD 4 = LANGEBEK & SUHM 1776 SRD 5 = SUHM 1783 SRD 6 = SUHM 1786 SUHM , P.F. 1783: SRD 5, Copenhagen. SUHM , P.F. 1786: SRD 6, Copenhagen. SZOMLAISKI, L. 1973: Yngre Sjællandske Krønike. Baggrund, tilblivelse og værdi (Odense University Studies in History and Social Sciences 10), Odense. WAITZ, G. 1887: “Zur Kritik Dänischer Geschichtsquellen,” Neues Archiv der Gesellschaft für ältere deutsche Geschichtskunde 12, 11–39. WAITZ, G. 1892: MGH SS 29 WESTPHALEN, E.J. VON 1739–1745: Monumenta inedita rerum Germanicarum præcipue Cimbricarum, et Megapolensium, quibus varia antiquitatum, historiarum, legum juriumque Germaniæ, speciatim Holsatiæ et Megapoleos vicinarumque regionum argumenta illustrantur, supplentur et stabiliuntur / e codicibus manuscriptis, menbranis et chartis authenticis erui studuit notulasque adjecit et cum præfatione instruxit Ernestus Joachimus de Westphalen, 1–4, Lipsiæ.